Class #22 Friday 4/1


NOTE: Friday's cancelled class (snow day) will be rescheduled for Tuesday, 4/5.
Bring any work that was due Friday 4/1 (If you already submitted to the main office,
leave your work there.) Students needing to make up quizzes
should come prepared to take them at the beginning of the class.

Class #21 Wednesday 3/30


Homework:

Chap book and all poems due Friday 4/1
(See prior two class notes in this page for)


Class #20 Monday 3/28


Homework:

Second draft of sonnet analysis due, Wednesday 3/30.

Create a "chap book"; instructions will be distributed and
discussed in class.

Compose one each of a concrete poem, ode, bantu and a calligram,
which will be included in the chap book.

(Note: the form or a "calligram", which is briefly described
and displayed below, will be further explained on Weds. 3/30.)

There will be class time allotted to the writing of the
these poems and chap book.

Chap book and all poems due Friday 4/1


A chapbook is a pocket-sized booklet.
The term chap-book was formalized by bibliophiles of the 19th century, as a variety of ephemera (disposable printed material), popular or folk literature. It includes many kinds of printed material such as pamphlets, political and religious tracts, nursery rhymes, poetry, folk tales, children's literature and almanacs. Where there were illustrations, they would be popular prints. The term is derived from chapmen, a variety of peddler, who circulated such literature as part of their stock.
The term is also in use for present-day publications, usually poetry, of up to about 40 pages, ranging from low-cost productions to expensive, finely produced editions.


Bantu
Two-line Bantu (or Abantu) poetry developed from the Bantu people of Africa (speakers of the Swahili, Kinyarwand, Kirundi, Zulu, Xhosa and other related languages). It arose from the oral tradition of “call and response.” In the rhythm of their work and perhaps in the spirit of a game or to relieve boredom, people would call out to each other. The first speaker called out a line that contained an image. A second speaker replied using a second image. This second image was meant to function as an elaboration or metaphor of the first.
1. It has two lines.
2. Each line contains an image.
3. The two images work together to form a metaphor.
4. Bantu don’t have titles.
5. There are no rules about rhyme, rhythm or line length.
What does a Bantu poem look like?


  • Wire hangers on a bar in the closet
  • Wild geese walking by a lake.

  • Children in a circle on the floor
  • The beaded necklace.

A bird chirping
A girl singing after her lover's first kiss.

Writing Bantu poems is an exercise in metaphor-making. Bender reminds us to include images of sound, taste and smell as well as touch and sight.
Some ways Bantu could be included in your daily routine is to make a list of seven first lines at the beginning of the week with a goal to complete them all by week’s end. You could also have a friend or family member challenge you with first lines, or involve the whole family by posting a list of first lines on the fridge or bulletin board for anyone to supply a response. Of course though these short poems are little creations in themselves, the metaphors that they bring to mind could also be used in other writing.




Calligram


A calligram is a poem, phrase, or word in which the typeface, calligraphy or handwriting is arranged in a way that creates a visual image. The image created by the words expresses visually what the word, or words, say. In a poem, it manifests visually the theme presented by the text of the poem. Guillaume Apollinaire was a famous calligram writer and author of a book of poems called Calligrammes. His poem written in the form of the Eiffel Tower is an example of a calligram:



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Ode



Ode (from the Ancient Greek ὠδή) is a type of lyrical verse. It is an elaborately structured poem praising or glorifying an event or individual, describing nature intellectually rather than emotionally. An ode is typically a lyrical verse written in praise of, or dedicated to someone or something which captures the poet's interest or serves as an inspiration for the ode.

The initial model for English odes was Horace, who used the form to write meditative lyrics on various themes.




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By John Keats




Thou still unravished bride of quietness,
Thou foster child of silence and slow time,
Sylvan historian, who canst thus express
A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme:
What leaf-fringed legend haunts about thy shape
Of deities or mortals, or of both,
In Tempe or the dales of Arcady?
What men or gods are these? What maidens loath?
What mad pursuit? What struggle to escape?
What pipes and timbrels? What wild ecstasy?

Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard
Are sweeter; therefore, ye soft pipes, play on;
Not to the sensual ear, but, more endeared,
Pipe to the spirit dities of no tone.
Fair youth, beneath the trees, thou canst not leave
Thy song, nor ever can those trees be bare;
Bold Lover, never, never canst thou kiss,
Though winning near the goal---yet, do not grieve;
She cannot fade, though thou hast not thy bliss
Forever wilt thou love, and she be fair!

Ah, happy, happy boughs! that cannot shed
Your leaves, nor ever bid the Spring adieu;
And, happy melodist, unweari-ed,
Forever piping songs forever new;
More happy love! more happy, happy love!
Forever warm and still to be enjoyed,
Forever panting, and forever young;
All breathing human passion far above,
That leaves a heart high-sorrowful and cloyed,
A burning forehead, and a parching tongue.

Who are these coming to the sacrifice?
To what green altar, O mysterious priest,
Lead'st thou that heifer lowing at the skies,
And all her silken flanks with garlands dressed?
What little town by river or sea shore,
Or mountain-built with peaceful citadel,
Is emptied of this folk, this pious morn?
And, little town, thy streets for evermore
Will silent be; and not a soul to tell
Why thou art desolate, can e'er return.

O Attic shape! Fair attitude! with brede
Of marble men and maidens overwrought,
With forest branches and the trodden weed;
Thou, silent form, dost tease us out of thought
As doth eternity. Cold Pastoral!
When old age shall this generation waste,
Thou shalt remain, in midst of other woe
Than ours, a friend to man, to whom thou say'st,
"Beauty is truth, truth beauty"---that is all
Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.





Class #19 Thursday 3/24


Homework:

Finish questions for White Girl Powwow Love, 1978.

Reminder: second draft of sonnet analysis due, Wednesday 3/30.





Class #18 Tuesday 3/22


*Sonnet "parody" Due Thursday 3/24
Be sure to fit your words into the metrical conventions of
iambic pentameter and the English (Shakespearean) Sonnet rhyme scheme; i.e., abab cdcd efef gg. *





      • Lexicon quiz on vocabulary terms 26-45 next Thursday, 3/24.** *



Class #17 Friday 3/18


Homework:


Now that you have spent 5 weeks studying poetry, please define, in your own words, just what poetry is;
responses should be no longer than two paragraphs.

Then, compose a poem that you feel exemplifies, in some way, your definition of poetry.
You may choose any form, meter, rhyme, verse, stanza etc., or none at all; any subject is acceptable as
long as it is appropriate for school.

Due Tuesday 3/22



* Memorize all 14 lines of one of the following of Shakespeare's Sonnets: 18 (XVIII), 29 (XXIX) or 116 (CXVI).
Written quiz on Tuesday 3/22; spelling and punctuation will count. *


*Sonnet "parody" Due Thursday 3/24
Be sure to fit your words into the metrical conventions of
iambic pentameter and the English (Shakespearean) Sonnet rhyme scheme; i.e., abab cdcd efef gg. *



      • Lexicon quiz on vocabulary terms 26-45 next Thursday, 3/24.** *



Class #16 Wednesday 3/16


Homework:


Sonnet "parody" Due Thursday 3/24
Be sure to fit your words into the metrical conventions of
iambic pentameter and the English (Shakespearean) Sonnet rhyme scheme; i.e., abab cdcd efef gg.


Five paragraph essay on one of the following Sonnets: 29,43, 75, or any other Sonnet approved by the teacher:

General outline of the essay:

Introduction
Summary of the form, progression and main themes of the Sonnet.
Description and explanation of the Sonnet's "volta".
Description and explanation of the Sonnet's "couplet".
Concluding remarks

All papers must be typed, double-spaced, size 12 font.
There is no prescribed heading, but submissions should
include your name and a title for the piece, which can simply be
the "Sonnet" and its relative number.


The first draft of the paper will be due Friday 3/18.


Reminders:

      • Memorize all 14 lines of one of the following of Shakespeare's Sonnets: 18 (XVIII), 29 (XXIX) or 116 (CXVI).
Written quiz on Tuesday 3/22; spelling and punctuation will count.**

      • Lexicon quiz on vocabulary terms 26-45 next Thursday, 3/24.**


hyperbaton |hīˈpərbəˌtän|
noun Rhetorican inversion of the normal order of words, esp. for the sake of emphasis, as in the sentence “ this I must see.”ORIGIN mid 16th cent.: via Latin from Greek huperbaton ‘overstepping’ (from huper ‘over, above’ + bainein ‘go, walk’ ).materialism |məˈti(ə)rēəˌlizəm|noun1 a tendency to consider material possessions and physical comfort as more important than spiritual values.2 Philosophy the doctrine that nothing exists except matter and its movements and modifications.the doctrine that consciousness and will are wholly due to material agency.

Class #15 Monday 3/14


Homework:

Memorize the first 12 lines of one of the following of Shakespeare's Sonnets: 18 (XVIII), 29 (XXIX) or 116 (CXVI).
Written quiz on Wednesday 3/14; spelling and punctuation will count.

If not submitted on Monday 3/14, Paraphrase/"translate" one of the following of Shakespeare's Sonnets: 29, 43, or 75.

Five paragraph essay on one of the following Sonnets: 29,43, 75, or any other Sonnet approved by the teacher:

General outline of the essay:

Introduction
Summary of the form, progression and main themes of the Sonnet.
Description and explanation of the Sonnet's "volta".
Description and explanation of the Sonnet's "couplet".
Concluding remarks

The first draft of the paper will be due Friday 3/18.




Shall I Compare Thee To A Bummer Trip?


Shall I compare thee to a bummer trip?
Thou art more seedy and more annoying:
You probably think you’re very cool and hip,
They way you shake and twirl that ugly thing.
I should have left you with thy crazy kid
Or fed you to the cat you drove beserk.
But when fowl tumor blossom grossly did
And made us all so sick and want to hurl,
I prayed to God you’d die or fly away
Or smash into the wall and split your head.
But Tumor Bird your tumor’s here to stay
And now I wish that I were happ’ly dead.

So long as you can chirp and grow your lump,
So long I yearn to toss you in the dump.




Class #14 Thursday 3/10


Homework:

Memorize the first 8 lines of one of the following of Shakespeare's Sonnets: 18 (XVIII), 29 (XXIX) or 116 (CXVI).
Written quiz on Monday 3/14; spelling and punctuation will count.

Paraphrase/"translate" one of the following of Shakespeare's Sonnets: 29, 43, or 75.

All Sonnets (with notes) can be found at the Shakespeare Sonnet page in the list in the right column of this page.

Class # 13 Tuesday 3/8


Homework:

Memorize first four lines of one of the following Shakespearean Sonnets: 29 (XXIX),18 (XVIII), or 116 (CXVI).
Written quiz on Thursday 3/10; spelling and punctuation will count.

Paraphrase/"translate" line 12 of Shakespeare's Sonnet 18 (XVIII)

"When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st"

(Hint: as an interpretive suggestion, I believe there is cause to consider
a connection between "eternal lines" and the "this" of the final line referred to below.)

Then read the final couplet:

"So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee."

Please do the following:

1. Paraphrase the couplet, similar to our collective paraphrasing of the first 11 lines of the Sonnet in class.

2. Identify the "this" of the last line.

3. Summarize the entire Sonnet in 2-4 sentences.


Philology is that venerable art which requires of those who honor her one thing above all: to turn aside, to take one's time, to become still and slow.... Precisely for this reason, she is more necessary today than ever, precisely on this account, she attracts and enchants us most powerfully, in an age of "work," which is to say, haste, the unseemly and sweating hurry that wants to be "done" with everything right away, even with every old and new book. She herself will not so easily be done with anything, she instructs reading well, that means, slowly, deeply, carefully, regardfully, looking forward and backward, with second thoughts, with doors left open, reading with delicate fingers and eyes....

F. Nietzsche, Morgenröte


hyperbole |hīˈpərbəlē|
nounexaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally.



ORIGIN mid 17th cent.: modern Latin, from Greek huperbolē ‘excess’ (from huper‘above’ + ballein ‘to throw’ ).




ELISION: (poetry)
slurring of two syllables into one, across adjacent vowels or weak voiced consonants; includes conventional poeticisms (”o’er” for “over,” “e’en” for “even”) and
nonce phrases so marked (”th’ unseen”) or so treated in scansion, usually to contract an anapest into an iamb.


nonce 1 |näns|
adjective(of a word or expression) coined for or used on one occasion : a nonce usage.





elision |iˈli zh ən| (general usage)
nounthe omission of a sound or syllable when speaking (as in I'm, let's, e ' en).an omission of a passage in a book, speech, or film : the movie's elisions and distortions have been carefully thought out.the process of joining together or merging things, esp. abstract ideas : unease at the elision of so many vital questions.ORIGIN late 16th cent.: from late Latin elision-, from Latin elidere ‘crush out’

Class #12 Friday 3/4


Homework:

Read Shakespeare's sonnet CXXX (130).
In one to two paragraphs, explain the meaning of the
concluding couplet (lines 13-14) in reference to the value
of the author's lover.

Class #11 Weds 3/2


Homework:

Italian Sonnet Due Friday 3/4
See Class #9 for directions below.


Eye rhyme ("Spelling rhyme")


Though not strictly rhymes, eye rhymes or sight rhymes refer to similarity in spelling but not in sound, as with cough, bough, or love, move. These are not rhymes in the strict sense, but often were in earlier language periods.



Shakespearean (English) Sonnet
1. The Shakespearean sonnet consists of three quatrains (4-line sections or stanzas) with a closing couplet (2 lines). The sections may or may not be separated by stanza breaks.
2. Each quatrain adds a new dimension of thought or progress toward the epiphany. “The Shakespearean turn makes a leap in logic. We progress slowly via each quatrain, laying the groundwork leading to epiphany, and suddenly have one in the couplet.”3
3. The rhyme scheme in a Shakespearean sonnet, which allows for a total of seven rhyme sounds, is more workable in the English language than the Petrarchan (4-5 rhyme sounds).
Quatrain 1: abab
Quatrain 2: cdcd
Quatrain 3: efef
Couplet: gg
Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day?” by William Shakespeare is a Shakespearean sonnet.



Sonnet XVIII: Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day?

BY WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE
Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?Thou art more lovely and more temperate:Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,And summer’s lease hath all too short a date;Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,And often is his gold complexion dimmed;And every fair from fair sometime declines,By chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed.But thy eternal summer shall not fade,Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st;Nor shall death brag thou wander’st in his shade,When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st: So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.


Class #10 Monday 2/28


Homework:

Reread Wordsworth's sonnet, Surprised By Joy.
Determine within which line the "volta" (turn) of the poem occurs.
In 2-3 paragraphs indicate the theme or problem that is portrayed
in the octave (the first 8 lines) of the poem and how the poet turns
his verse presentation to further elaborate, deepen, contrast or perhaps
resolve the issues of that thematic problem.

ANAPHORA:
repetition of a word or phrase in initial position.
ORIGIN late 16th cent.: senses 1 and 2 via Latin from Greek, ‘repetition,’ from ana- ‘back’ + pherein ‘to bear.’

Class #9 Thursday 2/17


Homework:

Compose an Italian sonnet according to the structure described in
class and below. You must use iambic pentameter. Be sure to
measure five iambic feet per line; variations should be spare and
for effect or a defensible expediency. Your octave must follow the
commonly employed abba abba rhyme scheme. Your sestet must
be one of the common sets shown here and below:
cdcdcd, or ccdccd or cddcdd or cdedce or cdecde or cddcee

Try to employ the convention of the "volta" or turn as described below.
That is to say, try to feature some contrastive idea, problem, theme
that is established in the octave and resolved or ironized or perhaps
fractured or transformed in the sestet. The volta should occur in the
transition within the 8th and 9th lines. These components will be
challenging to pull off. I will be satisfied with your best effort.

Topic: Social networking and the gadgets that facilitate it.

DUE: Friday 3/4




Class #8 Tuesday 2/15


HOMEWORK:

Jabberwocky oral recitation

"Love" Villanelle




Volta: literally "a turn"; a change in thought or feeling, usually found between the eighth and ninth lines of a sonnet.

the turn is an essential element of the sonnet form, perhaps the essential element. It is at the volta that the second idea is introduced.

ORIGIN late 17th cent. (as a fencing term): from French, from Italian volta ‘a turn,’from volgere ‘to turn.’


OCTAVE:
the first eight lines of a sonnet, almost always a complete rhyming unit.
The most common rhyme scheme for an octave is abba abba.

SESTET:
the last six lines of a Petrarchan sonnet; often subtly discernible by tone or mood in a Shakespearean sonnet as well,
although less distinctly marked there by rhyme scheme.

The most common rhyme scheme for a sestet: cdcdcd ccdccd cddcdd cdedce cdecde cddcee



TERCET:
3-line pattern of verses, usually aaa bbb. . . when rhymed, but common in free verse as well; also called “triplet.”


Sonnets from the Portuguese 43:

How do I love thee? Let me count the ways



BY ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING


How do I love thee? Let me count the ways.I love thee to the depth and breadth and heightMy soul can reach, when feeling out of sightFor the ends of being and ideal grace.I love thee to the level of every day’sMost quiet need, by sun and candle-light.I love thee freely, as men strive for right;I love thee purely, as they turn from praise.I love thee with the passion put to useIn my old griefs, and with my childhood’s faith.I love thee with a love I seemed to loseWith my lost saints. I love thee with the breath,Smiles, tears, of all my life; and, if God choose,I shall but love thee better after death.



Class #7 Friday 2/11



  • Compose a villanelle according to the structure described
in class and below. Recall that Plath's Mad Girl's Love Song and
Thomas' Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night are villanelles.
You should choose to employ one dominant metrical foot.
I suggest iambic or trochaic, but you may choose freely as long as
you can defend and feature your chosen metrical unit.
I also suggest maintaining a regular length of each line.
Although tetrameter and pentameter are most commonly used,
you may lengthen, or shorten, per the magnitude of your creative stamina.
You must also follow the rhyme scheme of the villanelle precisely.

In keeping with the spirit of Valentines Day, the theme of your villanelle
will be "love"; you will determine the kind, degree, and object of that love.

If you are in doubt about any detail of this assignment, or want help
writing a villanelle according to its strict structure, arrange a conference
with me before the due date of THURSDAY 2/17.

Examine the description, representative examples, and creative suggestions regarding villanelles
in the notes for Class #6 below.





ACEPHALOUS LINE:

a “headless” line in iambic or anapestic meter, which omits (a) slack syllable(s) from the first foot.


CATALECTIC LINE:
line lacking one or more of the slack syllables that its meter strictly followed would specify. Also called “defective.”

ENJAMBED LINE:
a line of verse whose sense runs on, without terminal punctuation, into the next.

enjambment |enˈjam(b)mənt| (also enjambement)
noun(in verse) the continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line, couplet, or stanza.ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: from French enjambement, from enjamber ‘stride over, go beyond,’ from en- ‘in’ + jambe ‘leg.’
end stop, in prosody, a grammatical pause at the end of a line of verse, as in these lines from Alexander Pope’s An Essay on Criticism :
  • A little learning is a dangerous thing;
  • Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring.
  • There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain,
  • And drinking largely sobers us again.


Pierian Spring


In Greek mythology, the Pierian Spring of Macedonia was sacred to the Muses. As the metaphorical source of knowledge of art and science,
[[#a “headless” line in iambic or anapestic meter, which omits (a) slack syllable(s) from the first foot.---Pierian Spring-Pieria, where the sacred spring was situated, was a region of ancient Macedonia, also the location of Mount Olympus, and believed to be the home and the seat of worship ofOrpheus[1] and the Muses[2][3], the deities of the arts and sciences. The spring is believed to be a fountain of knowledge that inspires whoever drinks from it.]]Pieria, where the sacred spring was situated, was a region of ancient Macedonia, also the location of Mount Olympus, and believed to be the home and the seat of worship ofOrpheus[1]and the Muses[2][3], the deities of the arts and sciences. The spring is believed to be a fountain of knowledge that inspires whoever drinks from it.


Surprised by Joy

Surprised by joy—impatient as the Wind
I turned to share the transport—Oh! with whomBut Thee, long buried in the silent Tomb,That spot which no vicissitude can find?Love, faithful love, recalled thee to my mind—But how could I forget thee?—Through what power,Even for the least division of an hour,Have I been so beguiled as to be blindTo my most grievous loss!—That thought’s returnWas the worst pang that sorrow ever bore,Save one, one only, when I stood forlorn,Knowing my heart’s best treasure was no more;That neither present time, nor years unbornCould to my sight that heavenly face restore. William Wordsworth (1814)
Story of the sonetto (little song)
Created in the court of Frederick II King of Sicily (1194–1250) the original sonnets were love poems, often with a spiritual element. Dante wrote the first sonnet sequence (group or cycle of sonnets), telling of his love for Beatrice Portinari. Francesco Petrarca—known as Petrarch (1304–1374)—perfected the form in the early 14th century and soon poets throughout Europe were imitating and adapting it.
In England, Sir Thomas Wyatt translated Petrarch’s sonnets into English and Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey (1517–1547) modified the rhyme scheme to better fit with the English language, writing what we now call Shakespearean or English sonnets. Edmund Spenser (1552–1599) made further adaptations to the Elizabethan form, creating the Spenserian Sonnet. William Shakespeare, John Donne, John Milton, William Wordsworth, and Elizabeth Barrett Browning are some well-known English sonneteers.
The basic sonnet
Throughout the centuries the basic sonnet has retained some characteristics.
- It is fourteen lines long.
- It is usually written in iambic pentameter.
- It follows a scheme or pattern of end-rhymes. That pattern varies with the type of sonnet.
Another distinguishing feature of the sonnet is the way it handles and delivers its message. Sonnets typically attempt to show contrast. This contrast could be in the realm of ideas, states of mind, beliefs, actions, events, images etc.
The poet begins by introducing an idea. That idea is developed
until, at some point within the poem, the contrast, resolution or outcome appears. The point of that appearance is called the turn, turning point or volta. This resolution is, of course, foreshadowed in the lines that precede it—by word choice and image—but not revealed or given away. The spot where the volta occurs varies with the type of sonnet.
Here is a brief description of the three types of sonnets:
Petrarchan (Italian) Sonnet
1. The Petrarchan sonnet consists of two sections: an 8-line octave, followed by a 6-line sestet. The two sections may or may not be separated by a stanza break.
2. The idea or question presents in the octave. It develops or resolves in the sestet. “In a Petrarchan sonnet, the poet tries to develop content philosophically so the beauty of an idea in the octave is felt or envisioned in the sestet. Epiphany dawns on the poet,” explains poet and teacher Michael Bugeja.2 The octave lays the groundwork or foundation for the sestet. The ending arises organically out of the beginning. The volta in a Petrarchan sonnet usually occurs at the beginning of the sestet. It is sometimes signaled by words like “but,” “then,” “so,” “because.”
3. The rhyme scheme in a Petrarchan sonnet allows for four or five rhyme sounds (two in the octave and two or three in the sestet):
Octave: abbaabba
Sestet: cdcdcd, or ccdccd or cddcdd or cdedce or cdecde or cddcee
How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways” by Elizabeth Barrett Browning is a Petrarchan sonnet.





Class #6 Wednesday 2/9



HOMEWORK:


TEST, Friday 2/11: Jabberwocky, entire poem, contextual orthography and specific capitalization required.

* Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds, identify one of the "9" parts of speech for every word. Due 2/11

  • Define "world" as you understand the term generically and in the context of
The World Is Too Much With Us Late and Soon, William Wordsworth.
Your response should be at least one paragraph, no more than three in length.
Please type and submit in class or per the "discussion" page or the mail link on Lalage. Due 2/11

  • Compose a villanelle according to the structure described
in class and below. Recall that Plath's Mad Girl's Love Song and
Thomas' Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night are villanelles.
You should choose to employ one dominant metrical foot.
I suggest iambic or trochaic, but you may choose freely as long as
you can defend and feature your chosen metrical unit.
I also suggest maintaining a regular length of each line.
Although tetrameter and pentameter are most commonly used,
you may lengthen, or shorten, per the magnitude of your creative stamina.
You must also follow the rhyme scheme of the villanelle precisely.

In keeping with the spirit of Valentines Day, the theme of your villanelle
will be "love"; you will determine the kind, degree, and object of that love.

If you are in doubt about any detail of this assignment, or want help
writing a villanelle according to its strict structure, arrange a conference
with me before the due date of THURSDAY 2/17.



They Challenged Me



They challenged me to write a villanelle

And I was inclined to attempt this feat,

But I'm not sure I did it very well.

I gave it my best shot, oh what the hell

Threw fear aside and jumped in with both feet...

They challenged me to write a villanelle.

And even though I hear a warning bell

Too late for doubts, can't leave it incomplete:

But I'm not sure I did it very well.

I wonder why on earth I let them sell

Me the idea... am tempted to retreat.

They challenged me to write a villanelle

But I'm no quitter that much I can tell

You, so I refused to concede defeat,

But I'm not sure I did it very well.

It's nearly done and I can almost smell

The scent of victory, and it is sweet.

They challenged me to write a villanelle

But I'm not sure I did it very well.


The Villanelle

The modern villanelle evolved from 14th century Italian pastoral round-songs. The French poet Jean Passerat wrote the first recognizable villanelles in the 16th century. By the 19th century English poets were using the form to write cute and clever light verses that often referred to the form itself. Modern and contemporary poets have demonstrated its potential more fully by writing villanelles that range from humorous to haunting. The villanelle is the second most common form poem modern poets choose to write (beaten out only by the sonnet).


What is a villanelle?
The villanelle is a form poem, that is, it’s a poem written according to a blueprint or plan. Furthermore, within the family of form poems the villanelle is a fixed form because it always has the same number of lines—19. These are arranged as five stanzas of three lines (tercets) and a final stanza of four lines (quatrain).

The villanelle employs rhyme. It has two rhyme sounds which we’ll refer to asa, and A (the same sound), and b.

To complicate things, it also has two repeating lines (or refrains). The first repeating line initially appears as line 1 (A1) and repeats in lines 6, 12 and 18. The second repeating line appears first as line 3 (A2) and repeats in lines 9, 15 and 19 (the last line of the poem).

Here is the villanelle’s pattern:

St. 1
A1 (first repeating line or refrain)

b

A2 (second repeating line or refrain)

St. 2
a

b

A1 (repeat of line 1)

St. 3
a

b

A2 (repeat of line 3)

St. 4
a

b

A1 (repeat of line 1)

St. 5
a

b

A2 (repeat of line 3)

St. 6
a

b

A1 (repeat of line 1)

A2 (repeat of line 3)

When working with the repeating lines, it is accepted practice—and most poets do—to change these slightly from one appearance to the next. The goal is to enlarge the meaning of the poem rather than precisely parrot back the words.

Villanelles have no set rhythm or line length but the lines are usually even. Iambic pentameter (te-TUM x 5) is a common rhythm for serious villanelles. The Thomas poem with which we began this article is written in iambic pentameter (do NOT go GENtle INto THAT good NIGHT). The trochee rhythm (TUM-te, BASket) also works well.

Eight to ten syllables per line is the most common length but shorter or longer lines are okay too. The main thing is to keep the rhythm regular.

For a light verse villanelle, anapest feet create a tripping rhythm ( te-te-TUM,ser-e-NADE). Or use dactyl feet for a marching or galloping effect (TUM-te-te,HAR-mo-ny).

Read some villanelles
Now let's take a break from reading about villanelles to reading some actual poems. Below are links to villanelles by well-known poets. They illustrate how the theory works in practice. You might want to read each poem several times.
On first reading:
• Read for meaning and general effect.
On second and successive readings:
• Note the repeating/refrain lines. Has the poet changed them? How do the changes affect poem's meaning.
• Note line lengths and rhythm. What do those things communicate to you?
"Chatty Cathy Villanelle" by David Trinidad
"Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night" by Dylan Thomas
"During the Service" by Carrie Grabo
"In Memory of the Unknown Poet, Robert Boardman Vaughn" by Donald Justice
"Lissadel" by Wendy Cope
"Subject to Change" by Marilyn Taylor
More villanelles here.

Write a Villanelle
Now that you are familiar with the rules of the form and have read a few, follow these steps to compose a villanelle of your own.

1. Choose a subject. Though any subject might do, there are some ideas which are better suited to the villanelle form than others. (W. H. Auden, when asked whether the form or content came first, replied, “At any given time, I have two things on my mind—a theme that interests me and a problem of verbal form. The theme looks for the right form; the form looks for the right theme. When the two come together, I am able to start writing.”2)

Some subjects or themes that lend themselves well to the villanelles are:
• Duality, for example two differing points of view, or two unlike things or people forced together. The first villanelle I wrote was for a contest where the challenge was to write a poem about Christmas in a prison or care home. Note the duality: happy time, sad place.
• Ironic subjects. Actor, writer and poetry aficionado Stephen Fry describes many villanelles as consisting of “a rueful, ironic reiteration of pain or fatalism.”3
• Humorous subjects—especially those rooted in irony.


2. Write the two repeating or refrain lines. This is the most important step of the villanelle-writing process and will largely determine the success of your poem. When composing the two repeating lines keep in mind:
• The end words of the two lines rhyme. The sound on which they end will also be the ‘a’ rhyme sound in the non-repeating lines. Therefore choose end words with a rhyme sound that’s easy to match.
• The lines should resonate with a meaning that has the potential to enlarge as the poem progresses.
• The lines should be musical and pleasing to the ear.
• Try beginning one or both refrain lines with a verb.
• The two lines need to come together effectively at the end of the poem.
“Technically the trick of it seems to be to find a refrain pair that is capable of run-ons, ambiguity and ironic reversal” says Fry.4


3. Decide on your second rhyme sound ‘b’. Again choose a sound that has lots of rhyme potential and that is different enough from rhyme ‘a’ to provide a pleasing contrast.
If you need some help finding rhymes, you can always use a free on-line rhyming dictionary for some help.
Rhymer
Rhymezone


4. Print out or write the villanelle form on a piece of paper and enter the repeating lines.


5. Make lists of words that rhyme with the two sounds you have chosen (a, A and b). Use a rhyming dictionary if you need to.


6. Compose the additional lines of your poem according to the rhyme scheme, using ideas suggested by the words on your list.


7. Make subtle changes to the refrain lines as your poem takes shape. Make these changes to enhance and add meaning, not simply for the sake of variety. “The repetition cannot be static,” says Frances Mayes. “Each time a repeating line appears it should have added significance.”5

If this way of composing a poem seems contrived and non-poetic, be reassured that you’re not the first person to feel this way. Poet and teacher Michael Begeja tells students they need to plot their villanelles6 (and you thought only fiction writers did that). Fry observes, “Certain closed forms (and he includes the villanelle here) …seem demanding enough in their structures and patterning to require some of the qualities needed for Sodoku and crosswords.”7 But despite the seemingly unpoetic method of composing, villanelles often appear spontaneous. Strive for such an effect, even if it takes much crossing out, agonizing over, and rewriting lines to get exactly what you’re after.

Once you’re familiar with writing by-the-rules villanelles, you may be tempted to join poets who have written villanelles that break the rules. Some poets leave out or add stanzas, rhyme only some of the lines, or none at all, or even write in free verse. As John Drury says, “You can manipulate forms as much as you like, shortening or lengthening as long as the poem turns out well.”8



Chatty Cathy Villanelle

BY DAVID TRINIDAD

When you grow up, what will you do?Please come to my tea party.I’m Chatty Cathy. Who are you?
Let’s take a trip to the zoo.Tee-hee, tee-hee, tee-hee. You’re silly!When you grow up, what will you do?
One plus one equals two.It’s fun to learn your ABC’s.I’m Chatty Cathy, who are you?
Please come help me tie my shoe.Can you come out and play with me?When you grow up, what will you do?
The rooster says cock-a-doodle-doo.Please read me a bedtime story.I’m Chatty Cathy. Who are you?
Our flag is red, white and blue.Let’s makebelieve you’re Mommy.When you grow up, what will you do?I’m Chatty Cathy. Who are you?











Class #5 Monday 2/7


Quiz, Wednesday, 2/9, Lexicon terms 1-25, multiple choice.

Test, Friday, 2/11, Jabberwocky, written version

Homework:

Scansion: excerpt from Kubla Khan, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, hand out.

Finish scansion of Metrical Feet, Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Complete scansion of either Mad Girl's Love Song, Sylvia Plath or Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night, Dylan Thomas
You may do both for extra credit.






Class #4 Thursday 2/3



Memorize 5th and 6th Stanzas of Jabberwocky
Quiz Monday, 2/7, Stanzas 1-6 of Jabberwocky, written version only


Original Poem of at least four stanzas, of at least four lines each, in iambic trimeter/tetrameter/pentameter
Rhyme Scheme: abab or abxb (Due Monday, 2/7)
Poem Topic: Making Sense: Describe one of the five human senses; what it does and "knows".
(You can make this personal, or not.)



villanelle |ˌviləˈnel|

nouna nineteen-line poem with two rhymes throughout, consisting of five tercets and a quatrain, with the first and third lines of the opening tercet recurring alternately at the end of the other tercets and with both repeated at the close of the concluding quatrain.ORIGIN late 19th cent.: from French, from Italian villanella

The villanelle has no established meter, although most 19th-century villanelles have used trimeter or tetrameter and most 20th-century villanelles have usedpentameter. The essence of the fixed modern form is its distinctive pattern of rhyme and repetition. The rhyme-and-refrain pattern of the villanelle can be schematized as A1bA2 abA1 abA2 abA1 abA2 abA1A2 where letters ("a" and "b") indicate the two rhyme sounds, upper case indicates a refrain ("A"), and superscript numerals (1 and 2) indicate Refrain 1 and Refrain 2.

Refrain 1 (A1)
Line 2 (b)
Refrain 2 (A2)

Line 4 (a)
Line 5 (b)
Refrain 1 (A1)

Line 7 (a)
Line 8 (b)
Refrain 2 (A2)

Line 10 (a)
Line 11 (b)
Refrain 1 (A1)

Line 13 (a)
Line 14 (b)
Refrain 2 (A2)

Line 16 (a)
Line 17 (b)
Refrain 1 (A1)
Refrain 2 (A2)





DO NOT GO GENTLE INTO THAT GOOD NIGHT



    • Do not go gentle into that good night,
    • Old age should burn and rage at close of day;
    • Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

Though wise men at their end know dark is right,
Because their words had forked no lightning they
Do not go gentle into that good night.


Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright
Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.


Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight,
And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way,
Do not go gentle into that good night.


Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight
Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.


And you, my father, there on the sad height,
Curse, bless me now with your fierce tears, I pray.
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

Dylan Thomas (1951)

dylan_thomas.jpg
dylan_thomas.jpg



Class #3 Tuesday 2/1


Homework:

Memorize 3rd and 4th Stanzas of Jabberwocky

Quiz Thursday, 2/3, Stanzas 1-4 of Jabberwocky, written version only

Scansion of Jabberwocky (all remaining lines not scanned in class).

Original Poem of at least four stanzas, of at least four lines each, in iambic trimeter/tetrameter/pentameter
Rhyme Scheme: abab or abxb (Due Monday, 2/7)
Poem Topic: Making Sense: Describe one of the five human senses; what it does and "knows".
(You can make this personal, or not.)

Scansion: Rules of Thumb



1. Locate any polysyllabic words and mark their stresses, as given in a dictionary.

2. Mark the stressed monosyllables. These will be most (but not always all!) of the following: nouns, main verbs, adjectives and adverbs, interjections, interrogative pronouns; and rhymes.
3. Mark the rest of the syllables slack. These will be unstressed syllables within polysyllabic words and most (but not always all!) of the following monosyllables: articles, prepositions, auxiliary verbs, conjunctions, relative pronouns.




16. ACCENT:

emphasis given a syllable in ordinary usage, as provided by a pronouncing dictionary.

17. ACCENTUAL-SYLLABIC: the prosodic mode that dominated English-language poetry 1400-1900. Alike distinct from verse that is quantitative (measuring duration, as in classical Greek and Latin), accentual (counting only beats, as in Old English), and syllabic (counting only syllables, as in certain: 20th-cy. experiments), accentual-syllabic verse is based on recurrent units (feet) that combine slacks and stresses in fixed sequence.

18.
CAESURA: mid-line pause, often marked by punctuation but not always. See also hemistich.
19.
HEMISTICH: part of a line on either side of a caesura.
20.
PITCH: high or low quality of sounds in a syllable: a property of both consonants and vowels, it is one contributing factor in the determination of stress.


21.SLACK: unstressed syllable in metered verse; scansion mark

22. STANZA: group of lines whose meter and rhyme scheme follow a pattern that is exactly repeated, constituting the structural unit of a stanzaic poem.

23. STRESS:
emphasis that a syllable receives in metered verse; scansion mark ⁄ Stress may be due to accent (as given in dictionaries for polysyllabic words), to grammar (monosyllabic nouns and adjectives, e.g., routinely taking stress), to context (where a word acquires dramatic or rhetorical force), or, infrequently, to the exigency ofmeter itself.


1/28 Class #2 Friday




Homework:

* Memorize 2nd stanza of Jabberwocky; quiz Tuesday, first two stanzas.

* Quiz: Lexicon terms (1-15 only)

* Acrostic Poem: Use your full name (i.e.,including middle name if you own one)

to create a poem which describes some of your physical or metaphysical features, behaviors, idiosyncrasies, etc.,

or, if you are rather minuscule, all of you.



Ars Poetica

A poem should be palpable and mute
As a globed fruit,

Dumb
As old medallions to the thumb,

Silent as the sleeve-worn stone
Of casement ledges where the moss has grown --

A poem should be wordless
As the flight of birds.

*

A poem should be motionless in time
As the moon climbs,

Leaving, as the moon releases
Twig by twig the night-entangled trees,

Leaving, as the moon behind the winter leaves,
Memory by memory the mind --

A poem should be motionless in time
As the moon climbs.

*

A poem should be equal to
Not true.

For all the history of grief
An empty doorway and a maple leaf.

For love
The leaning grasses and two lights above the sea --

A poem should not mean
But be.


Archibald MacLeish (1926)


alliteration |əˌlitəˈrā sh ən|

nounthe occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.ORIGIN early 17th cent.: from medieval Latin alliteratio(n-), from Latin ad- (expressing addition) + littera ‘letter.’


assonance |ˈasənəns|

nounin poetry, the repetition of the sound of a vowel or diphthong in nonrhyming stressedsyllables near enough to each other for the echo to be discernible (e.g.,penitence,reticence). Compare with alliteration .DERIVATIVESassonant adjectiveassonate |-ˌnāt| verbORIGIN early 18th cent.: from French, from Latin assonare ‘respond to,’ from ad- ‘to’+ sonare (from sonus ‘sound’ )




consonance |ˈkänsənəns|nounagreement or compatibility between opinions or actions : consonance between conservation measures and existing agricultural practice.




the recurrence of similar sounds, esp. consonants, in close proximity (chiefly as used in prosody).



Music the combination of notes that are in harmony with each other due to the relationship between their frequencies.ORIGIN late Middle English : from Old French, or from Latin consonantia, fromconsonant- ‘sounding together,’ from the verb consonare (see consonant ).




onomatopoeia |ˌänəˌmatəˈpēə; -ˌmätə-|nounthe formation of a word from a sound associated with what is named (e.g., cuckoo, sizzle).the use of such words for rhetorical effect.DERIVATIVESonomatopoeic |-ˈpē-ik| or onomatopoetic |-pōˈetik| adjectiveonomatopoeically |-ˈpē-ik(ə)lē| or onomatopoetically |-pōˈetik(ə)lē|adverbORIGIN late 16th cent.: via late Latin from Greek onomatopoiia ‘word-making,’ fromonoma, onomat- ‘name’ + -poios ‘making’ (from poiein ‘to make’ ).internal rhymenouna rhyme involving a word in the middle of a line and another at the end of the line or in the middle of the next.
In poetry,
internal rhyme, or middle rhyme, is rhyme that occurs in a single line of verse.

Internal rhyme occurs in the middle of a line, as in these lines from Coleridge, "In mist or cloud, on mast or shroud" or "Whiles all the night through fog-smoke white" ("The Rime of the Ancient Mariner"), or in "Ah, distinctly I remember, it was in the bleak December" from "The Raven" by Edgar Allan Poe. Internal rhyme is also used extensively in modern hip hop music, being pioneered by Rakim in the 1980s.[1][2] More internal rhyme from "The Raven" by Edgar A. Poe is as follows:[3]

Once upon a midnight
dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,

Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore,
While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.
"'Tis some visitor," I muttered, "tapping at my chamber door
Only this, and nothing more."




portmanteau |pôrtˈmantō|

noun ( pl. -teaus |-tōz| or -teaux |-tōz|)a large trunk or suitcase, typically made of stiff leather and opening into two equal parts.[as adj. ] consisting of or combining two or more separable aspects or qualities : a portmanteau movie composed of excerpts from his most famous films.ORIGIN mid 16th cent.: from French portemanteau, from porter ‘carry’ + manteau‘mantle.’




portmanteau wordnouna word blending the sounds and combining the meanings of two others, for examplemotel
(from ‘motor’ and hotel’) or brunch


(from ‘breakfast’ and ‘lunch’).

ORIGIN

portmanteau coined, in this sense, by Lewis Carroll in Through the Looking Glass(1871).




iamb |ˈīˌam(b)|noun Prosodya metrical foot consisting of one short (or unstressed) syllable followed by one long (or stressed) syllable.trochee |ˈtrōkē|noun Prosodya foot consisting of one long or stressed syllable followed by one short or unstressed syllable.ORIGIN late 16th cent.: via Latin from Greektrokhaios (pous) ‘running (foot),’

from trekhein ‘to run.’

prosody |ˈpräsədē|

nounthe patterns of rhythm and sound used in poetry : the translator is not obliged to reproduce the prosody of the original.the theory or study of these patterns, or the rules governing them.the patterns of stress and intonation in a language : the salience of prosody in child language acquisition | early English prosodies.DERIVATIVESprosodic |prəˈsädik; -zädik|or prosodical |prəˈsädikəl; -ˈzäd-| adjectiveprosodist |ˈpräsədist; ˈpräz-| nounORIGIN late 15th cent.: from Latin prosodia ‘accent of a syllable,’ from Greekprosōidia ‘song sung to music, tone of a syllable,’ from pros ‘toward’ + ōidē‘song.’




meter ( Brit. metre)nounthe rhythm of a piece of poetry, determined by the number and length of feet in a line:the Horatian ode has an intricate governing meter | unexpected changes of stress and meter.




the basic pulse and rhythm of a piece of music.



ORIGIN Old English , reinforced in Middle English by Old French

metre , from Latin metrum, from Greek metron ‘measure.’



foot:

(Prosody) a group of syllables constituting a metrical unit. In English poetry it consists of stressed and unstressed syllables, while in ancient classical poetry it consists of long and short syllables.


scansion |ˈskan sh ən|

nounthe action of scanning a line of verse to determine its rhythm.the rhythm of a line of verse.


Scansion is the act of determining and (usually) graphically representing the metrical character of a line of verse.


ORIGIN mid 17th cent.: from Latin scansio(n-), from scandere ‘to climb’ ; compare with scan .











Iambe


Iambe in Greek mythology was a Thracian woman, daughter of Pan and Echo and a servant of Metaneira, the wife of Hippothoon. Others call her a slave of Celeus,king of Eleusis . The extravagant hilarity displayed at the festivals of Demeter in Attica was traced to her ; for it is said that, whenDemeter, in her wanderings in search of her daughter, arrived in Attica, : lambe cheered the mournful goddess by her jokes, (Horn. Hymn, in Cer. 202 ; Apollod. i. 5. § 1 ; Diod. v. 4; Phot. BibL Cod. 239. p. 319, ed. Bekker ; Schol. ad Nicand. Aleodph, 134.) She was believed to have given the name to Iambic poetry ; for some said that she hanged herself in consequence of the cutting speeches in which she had indulged, and others that she had cheered Demeter by a dance in the Iambic metre. (Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1684.) [L. S.]




Iambic pentameter




Iambic pentameter is a commonly used metrical line in traditional verse and verse drama. The term describes the particular rhythm that the words establish in that line. That rhythm is measured in small groups of syllables; these small groups of syllables are called "feet". The word "iambic" describes the type of foot that is used (in English, an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable). The word "pentameter" indicates that a line hasfive of these "feet".

These terms originally applied to the quantitative meter of classical poetry. They were adopted to describe the equivalent meters in English accentual-syllabic verse. Different languages express rhythm in different ways. In Ancient Greek and Latin, the rhythm is created through the alternation of short and long syllables. In English, the rhythm is created through the use of stress, alternating between unstressed and stressed syllables. An English unstressed syllable is equivalent to a classical short syllable, while an English stressed syllable is equivalent to a classical long syllable. When a pair of syllables is arranged as a short followed by a long, or an unstressed followed by a stressed, pattern, that foot is said to be "iambic". The English word "trapeze" is an example of an iambic pair of syllables, since the word is made up of two syllables ("tra—peze") and is pronounced with the stress on the second syllable ("tra—PEZE", rather than "TRA—peze"). Iambic pentameter is a line made up of five such pairs of short/long, or unstressed/stressed, syllables.
Iambic rhythms come relatively naturally in English. Iambic pentameter is the most common meter in English poetry; it is used in many of the major English poetic forms, includingblank verse, the heroic couplet, and some of the traditional rhymed stanza forms. William Shakespeare used iambic pentameter in his plays and sonnets.


[[#Iambic pentameter-[edit]Simple example]][edit]Simple example

An iambic foot is an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. The rhythm can be written as:



da
DUM
The da-DUM of our heartbeat is the most common example of this rhythm.

A line of iambic pentameter is five iambic feet in a row:

da
DUM
da
DUM
da
DUM
da
DUM
da
DUM
The tick-TOCK rhythm of iambic pentameter can be heard in the opening line of Shakespeare's Sonnet 12:
When I do count the clock that tells the time

It is possible to notate this with a '˘' (breve) mark representing an unstressed syllable and a '/' (slash or ictus) mark representing a stressed syllable.[1] In this notation a line of iambic pentameter would look like this:

˘
/
˘
/
˘
/
˘
/
˘
/

The following line from John Keats' Ode to Autumn is a straightforward example:[2]
To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells

The scansion of this can be notated as follows:

˘
/
˘
/
˘
/
˘
/
˘
/
To
swell
the
gourd,
and
plump
the
ha-
zel
shells
The divisions between feet are marked with a |, and the caesura (a pause) with a double vertical bar ||.

˘
/

˘
/

˘
/

˘
/

˘
/
To
swell
|
the
gourd,


and
plump
|
the
ha-
|
zel
shells

[[#Iambic pentameter-[edit]Rhythmic variation]][edit]Rhythmic variation

Although strictly speaking, iambic pentameter refers to five iambs in a row (as above), in practice, poets vary their iambic pentameter a great deal, while maintaining the iamb as the most common foot. There are some conventions to these variations, however. Iambic pentameter must always contain only five feet, and the second foot is almost always an iamb. The first foot, on the other hand, is the most likely to change by the use of inversion, which reverses the order of the syllables in the foot. The following line from Shakespeare's Richard IIIbegins with an inversion:


/
˘

˘
/

˘
˘

/
/

˘
/
Now
is
|
the
win-
|
ter
of
|
our
dis-
|
con-
tent
Another common departure from standard iambic pentameter is the addition of a final unstressed syllable, which creates a weak or feminine ending. One of Shakespeare's most famous lines of iambic pentameter has a weak ending:[3]

˘
/

˘
/

˘
/

/
˘

˘
/
˘
To
be
|
or
not
|
to
be,
|
that
is
|
the
ques-
tion
This line also has an inversion of the fourth foot, following the caesura. In general a caesura acts in many ways like a line-end: inversions are common after it, and the extra unstressed syllable of the feminine ending may appear before it. Shakespeare and John Milton (in his work before Paradise Lost) at times employed feminine endings before a caesura.[4]
Here is the first quatrain of a sonnet by John Donne, which demonstrates how he uses a number of metrical variations strategically:

/
˘

˘
/

˘
/

˘
/

˘
/

Bat-
ter
|
my
heart
|
three-
per-
|
soned
God,
|
for
you
|


˘
/

˘
/

/
/

˘
/

˘
/
as
yet
|
but
knock,
|
breathe,
shine
|
and
seek
|
to
mend.
|


˘
/

˘
/

˘
/

/
/

˘
˘
/

That
I
|
may
rise
|
and
stand
|
o'er
throw
|
me
and
bend
|



˘
/

˘
/

/
/

˘
/

˘
/

Your
force
|
to
break,
|
blow,
burn
|
and
make
|
me
new.
|
Donne uses an inversion (DUM da instead of da DUM) in the first foot of the first line to stress the key verb, "batter", and then sets up a clear iambic pattern with the rest of the line (da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM). In the second and fourth lines he uses spondees in the third foot to slow down the rhythm as he lists monosyllabic verbs. The parallel rhythm and grammar of these lines highlights the comparison Donne sets up between what God does to him "as yet" ("knock, breathe, shine and seek to mend"), and what he asks God to do ("break, blow, burn and make me new"). Donne also uses enjambmentbetween lines three and four to speed up the flow as he builds to his desire to be made new. To further the speed-up effect of the enjambment, Donne puts an extra syllable in the final foot of the line (this can be read as an anapest (dada DUM) or as an elision).
As the examples show, iambic pentameter need not consist entirely of iambs, nor need it have ten syllables. Most poets who have a great facility for iambic pentameter frequently vary the rhythm of their poetry as Donne and Shakespeare do in the examples, both to create a more interesting overall rhythm and to highlight important thematic elements. In fact, the skillful variation of iambic pentameter, rather than the consistent use of it, may well be what distinguishes the rhythmic artistry of Donne, Shakespeare, Milton, and the 20th centurysonneteer Edna St. Vincent Millay.

*



1/26 First Class Wednesday


What is "poetry"?

ACROSTIC poem: A Boat Beneath a Sunny Sky , Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson)
from Through the Looking-Glass And What Alice Found There (1871)

A boat beneath a sunny sky,
Lingering onward dreamily
In an evening of July--

Children three that nestle near,
Eager eye and willing ear,
Pleased a simple tale to hear--

Long has paled that sunny sky:
Echoes fade and memories die.
Autumn frosts have slain July.

Still she haunts me, phantomwise,
Alice moving under skies
Never seen by waking eyes.

Children yet, the tale to hear,
Eager eye and willing ear,
Lovingly shall nestle near.

In a Wonderland they lie,
Dreaming as the days go by,
Dreaming as the summers die:

Ever drifting down the stream--
Lingering in the golden gleam--
Life, what is it but a dream?

acrostic |əˈkrôstik; əˈkräs-|

nouna poem, word puzzle, or other composition in which certain letters in each line form a word or words.ORIGIN late 16th cent.: from French

acrostiche , from Greek akrostikhis, from akron ‘end’ + stikhos ‘row, line of verse.’ The spelling change was due to association with -ic




vernacular |vərˈnakyələr|noun1 (usu. the vernacular) the language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region

: he wrote in the vernacular to reach a larger audience. See note atdialect .

[with adj. ] the terminology used by people belonging to a specified group or engaging in a specialized activity

: gardening vernacular.2 architecture concerned with domestic and functional rather than monumental buildings : buildings in which Gothic merged into farmhouse vernacular.

adjective1 (of language) spoken as one's mother tongue; not learned or imposed as a second language.(of speech or written works) using such a language

: vernacular literature.2 (of architecture) concerned with domestic and functional rather than monumental buildings.

DERIVATIVESvernacularism |-ˌrizəm| nounvernacularity |-ˌnakyəˈlaritē| nounvernacularize |-ˌrīz| verbvernacularly adverbORIGIN early 17th cent.: from Latin

vernaculus ‘domestic, native’ (from verna ‘home-born slave’ ) + [[x-dictionary:r:ar 015:com.apple.dictionary.NOAD|-ar 1]]


synonyms


noun1 he wrote in the vernacular to reach a wider audience: everyday language, colloquiallanguage, conversational language, common parlance, demotic, lay terms.2 informal the preppy vernacular of Orange County: language, dialect, regional language,regionalisms, patois, parlance; idiom, slang, jargon; informal lingo, -speak, -es


quatrain |ˈkwäˌtrān|

nouna stanza of four lines, esp. one having alternate rhymes.ORIGIN late 16th cent.: from French, from quatre ‘four.’cherub ch erəb|noun ( pl. cherubim) ch er(y)əbim|a winged angelic being described in biblical tradition as attending on God. It is represented in ancient Middle Eastern art as a lion or bull with eagles' wings and a human face, and regarded in traditional Christian angelology as an angel of the second highest order of the ninefold celestial hierarchy.( pl. cherubim ch er(y)əˌbim|or cherubs ) a representation of a cherub in art, depicted as a chubby, healthy-looking child with wings.(pl. cherubs) a beautiful or innocent-looking child.ORIGIN Old Englishcherubin , ultimately (via Latin and Greek) from Hebrew kĕrū b

, plural kĕrū b īm. A rabbinic folk etymology, which explains the Hebrew singular form asrepresenting Aramaic kĕ-ra b yā ‘like a child,’ led to the representation of the cherub as a child.


Homework: learn the first QUATRAIN of theJabberwocky.


`Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe:

All mimsy were the borogoves,
And the mome raths outgrabe.**