1. acrostic |əˈkrôstik; əˈkräs-|
nouna poem, word puzzle, or other composition in which certain letters in each line form a word or words.ORIGIN late 16th cent. : from French
acrostiche , from Greek akrostikhis , from akron‘end’ + stikhos ‘row, line of verse.’ The spelling change was due to association with -ic



2. vernacular |vərˈnakyələr|

1 (usu. the vernacular ) the language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region
: he wrote in the vernacular to reach a larger audience.
[with adj. ] the terminology used by people belonging to a specified group or engaging in a specialized activity
: gardening vernacular. 2 architecture concerned with domestic and functional rather than monumental buildings : buildings in which Gothic merged into farmhouse vernacular.
adjective1 (of language) spoken as one's mother tongue; not learned or imposed as a second language.(of speech or written works) using such a language
: vernacular literature. 2 (of architecture) concerned with domestic and functional rather than monumental buildings.
DERIVATIVESvernacularism |-ˌrizəm| noun vernacularity |-ˌnakyəˈlaritē| noun vernacularize |-ˌrīz| verb vernacularly adverbORIGIN early 17th cent. : from Latin
vernaculus ‘domestic, native’ (from verna‘home-born slave’ ) + [[x-dictionary:r:ar 015:com.apple.dictionary.NOAD|-ar 1]]


synonyms

noun1 he wrote in the vernacular to reach a wider audience : everyday language , colloquiallanguage , conversational language , common parlance , demotic ,lay terms .2 informal the preppy vernacular of Orange County : language , dialect , regional language , regionalisms , patois , parlance ; idiom , slang , jargon ; informallingo , -speak , -es

3. quatrain |ˈkwäˌtrān|
nouna stanza of four lines, esp. one having alternate rhymes.ORIGIN late 16th cent. : from French , from quatre ‘four.’4. cherub ch erəb|noun ( pl. cherubim ) ch er(y)əbim|a winged angelic being described in biblical tradition as attending on God. It is represented in ancient Middle Eastern art as a lion or bull with eagles' wings and a human face, and regarded in traditional Christian angelology as an angel of the second highest order of the ninefold celestial hierarchy.( pl. cherubim ch er(y)əˌbim| or cherubs ) a representation of a cherub in art, depicted as a chubby, healthy-looking child with wings.( pl. cherubs ) a beautiful or innocent-looking child.ORIGIN Old Englishcherubin , ultimately (via Latin and Greek ) from Hebrew kĕrū b
, plural kĕrū b īm . A rabbinic folk etymology, which explains the Hebrew singular form asrepresenting Aramaic kĕ-ra b yā ‘like a child,’ led to the representation of the cherub as a child.

5. portmanteau word


nouna word blending the sounds and combining the meanings of two others, for examplemotel (from ‘motor’ and hotel’) or brunch
(from ‘breakfast’ and ‘lunch’).
ORIGIN
portmanteau coined, in this sense, by Lewis Carroll in Through the Looking Glass (1871).



6. iamb |ˈīˌam(b)|noun Prosodya metrical foot consisting of one short (or unstressed) syllable followed by one long (or stressed) syllable.

7. prosody |ˈpräsədē|
nounthe patterns of rhythm and sound used in poetry : the translator is not obliged to reproduce the prosody of the original.the theory or study of these patterns, or the rules governing them. the patterns of stress and intonation in a language : the salience of prosody in child language acquisition | early English prosodies.DERIVATIVESprosodic |prəˈsädik; -zädik| or prosodical |prəˈsädikəl; -ˈzäd-| adjective prosodist |ˈpräsədist; ˈpräz-| nounORIGIN late 15th cent. : from Latin prosodia ‘accent of a syllable,’ from Greek prosōidia ‘song sung to music, tone of a syllable,’ from pros ‘toward’ +ōidē ‘song.’


8. meter ( Brit. metre )nounthe rhythm of a piece of poetry, determined by the number and length of feet in a line: the Horatian ode has an intricate governing meter
| unexpected changes of stress and meter.


the basic pulse and rhythm of a piece of music.

ORIGIN Old English , reinforced in Middle English by Old French
metre , from Latin metrum , from Greek metron ‘measure.’


9. foot:

(Prosody) a group of syllables constituting a metrical unit. In English poetry it consists of stressed and unstressed syllables, while in ancient classical poetry it consists of long and short syllables.

10. scansion |ˈskan sh ən|

nounthe action of scanning a line of verse to determine its rhythm.the rhythm of a line of verse.

Scansion is the act of determining and (usually) graphically representing the metrical character of a line of verse.

ORIGIN mid 17th cent. : from Latin scansio(n-) , from scandere ‘to climb’ ; compare with scan .

11. alliteration |əˌlitəˈrā sh ən|
nounthe occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.ORIGIN early 17th cent. : from medieval Latin alliteratio(n-) , from Latin ad- (expressing addition) + littera ‘letter.’

12. assonance |ˈasənəns|
nounin poetry, the repetition of the sound of a vowel or diphthong in nonrhyming stressedsyllables near enough to each other for the echo to be discernible (e.g.,penitence , reticence ). Compare with alliteration .DERIVATIVESassonant adjective assonate |-ˌnāt| verbORIGIN early 18th cent. : from French , from Latin assonare ‘respond to,’ from ad- ‘to’ + sonare (from sonus ‘sound’ )


13. consonance |ˈkänsənəns|nounagreement or compatibility between opinions or actions : consonance between conservation measures and existing agricultural practice.

the recurrence of similar sounds, esp. consonants, in close proximity (chiefly as used in prosody ).

Music the combination of notes that are in harmony with each other due to the relationship between their frequencies.
ORIGIN late Middle English : from Old French , or from Latin consonantia , from consonant- ‘sounding together,’ from the verb consonare (see consonant ).


14. onomatopoeia |ˌänəˌmatəˈpēə; -ˌmätə-|
nounthe formation of a word from a sound associated with what is named (e.g., cuckoo , sizzle ).the use of such words for rhetorical effect.DERIVATIVESonomatopoeic |-ˈpē-ik| or onomatopoetic |-pōˈetik| adjective onomatopoeically |-ˈpē-ik(ə)lē| or onomatopoetically |-pōˈetik(ə)lē| adverbORIGIN late 16th cent. : via late Latin from Greek onomatopoiia ‘word-making,’ from onoma , onomat- ‘name’ + -poios ‘making’ (from poiein ‘to make’ ).15. internal rhymenouna rhyme involving a word in the middle of a line and another at the end of the line or in the middle of the next.

(NOTE: Lexicon Quiz #1 for Tuesday 2/1 will only comprise terms 1-15)


16. ACCENT:emphasis given a syllable in ordinary usage, as provided by a pronouncing dictionary.17. ACCENTUAL-SYLLABIC: the prosodic mode that dominated English-language poetry 1400-1900. Alike distinct from verse that is quantitative (measuring duration, as in classical Greek and Latin), accentual (counting only beats, as in Old English), and syllabic (counting only syllables, as in certain: 20th-cy. experiments), accentual-syllabic verse is based on recurrent units ( feet ) that combine slacks and stresses in fixed sequence.18. CAESURA:mid-line pause, often marked by punctuation but not always. See also hemistich .19. HEMISTICH:part of a line on either side of a caesura .20. PITCH:high or low quality of sounds in a syllable: a property of both consonants and vowels, it is one contributing factor in the determination of stress.21. SLACK:
unstressed syllable in metered verse; scansion mark 22. STANZA:
group of lines whose meter and rhyme scheme follow a pattern that is exactly repeated, constituting the structural unit of a stanzaic poem.
23. STRESS:
emphasis that a syllable receives in metered verse; scansion mark Stress may be due to accent (as given in dictionaries for polysyllabic words), to grammar (monosyllabic nouns and adjectives, e.g., routinely taking stress), to context (where a word acquires dramatic or rhetorical force), or, infrequently, to the exigency of meter itself.
23. villanelle |ˌviləˈnel|nouna nineteen-line poem with two rhymes throughout, consisting of five tercets and aquatrain, with the first and third lines of the opening tercet recurring alternately at the end of the other tercets and with both repeated at the close of the concluding quatrain.ORIGIN late 19th cent. : from French , from Italian villanella24. SPONDEE:metrical foot consisting of two consecutive stresses: / /ORIGIN late Middle English : from Old French , or via Latin from Greek spondeios (pous) ‘(foot) of a libation,’ from spondē ‘libation’ (being characteristic of music accompanying libations).25. TROCHEE:


metrical foot consisting of a stress and a slack: / υ

ORIGIN late 16th cent. : via Latin from Greek trokhaios (pous) ‘running (foot),’ from trekhein ‘to run.’




26. enjambment |enˈjam(b)mənt| (also enjambement )

noun(in verse) the continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line, couplet, or stanza.ORIGIN mid 19th cent. : from French enjambement , from enjamber ‘stride over, go beyond,’ from en- ‘in’ + jambe ‘leg.’
27. end stop , in prosody, a grammatical pause at the end of a line of verse, as in these lines from Alexander Pope ’s An Essay on Criticism :
  • A little learning is a dangerous thing;
  • Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring.
  • There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain,
  • And drinking largely sobers us again.

28. Pierian Spring

In Greek mythology, the Pierian Spring of Macedonia was sacred to the Muses. As the metaphorical source of knowledge of art and science, it was popularized by a line in Alexander Pope's poem "An Essay on Criticism" (1709).
Pieria, where the sacred spring was situated, was a region of ancient Macedonia, also the location of Mount Olympus, and believed to be the home and the seat of worship of Orpheus and the Muses, the deities of the arts and sciences. The spring is believed to be a fountain of knowledge that inspires whoever drinks from it.


Generally used to indicate a source of inspiration.




29. Volta : literally "a turn"; a change in thought or feeling, usually found between the eighth and ninth lines of a sonnet.
the turn is an essential element of the sonnet form, perhaps the essential element. It is at the volta that the second idea is introduced.

ORIGIN late 17th cent. (as a fencing term): from French , from Italian volta ‘a turn,’ from volgere ‘to turn.’


30. OCTAVE:
the first eight lines of a sonnet , almost always a complete rhyming unit.
The most common rhyme scheme for an octave is abba abba .

31. SESTET:
the last six lines of a Petrarchan (Italian) sonnet ; often subtly discernible by tone or mood in a Shakespearean sonnet as well,
although less distinctly marked there by rhyme scheme.

The most common rhyme scheme for a sestet: cdcdcd ccdccd cddcdd cdedce cdecde cddcee


32. TERCET:
3-line pattern of verses, usually aaa bbb. . . when rhymed, but common in free verse as well; also called “triplet.”

33. ANAPEST:
metrical foot consisting of two slacks and a stress: υ υ

34. DACTYL:
metrical foot consisting of a stress and two slacks: / υ υ

35. MASCULINE ENDING:
line ending where the last syllable is stressed.

36. FEMININE ENDING:
a line ending whose last syllable is a slack; normal in trochaic and dactylic verse, it also frequently arises in anapestic and even iambic verse.

37. PYRRHIC:
metrical foot consisting of two consecutive slacks: υ υ . Occurs only in conjunction with its complementary foot the spondee , which assumes or borrows its pyrrhic partner’s missing beat.


38. SONNET:
poem of 14 lines usually in iambic pentameter and subdivided by one of two rhyme schemes: “Petrarchan” (or “Italian”) abbaabba cdecde and “English” (or “Shakespearean”) abab cdcd efef gg

39. ANAPHORA:
repetition of a word or phrase in initial position.

40. hyperbole |hīˈpərbəlē|


nounexaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally.

ORIGIN mid 17th cent. : modern Latin , from Greek huperbolē ‘excess’ (from huper ‘above’ + ballein ‘to throw’ ).

41. ELISION: (poetry)
slurring of two syllables into one, across adjacent vowels or weak voiced consonants; includes conventional poeticisms (”o’er” for “over,” “e’en” for “even”) and
nonce phrases so marked (”th’ unseen”) or so treated in scansion, usually to contract an anapest into an iamb.


42. nonce 1 |näns|
adjective(of a word or expression) coined for or used on one occasion : a nonce usage.PHRASESfor the nonce for the present; temporarily :the room had been converted for the nonce into a nursery.

43. Eye rhyme ("Spelling rhyme")

Though not strictly rhymes, eye rhymes or sight rhymes refer to similarity in spelling but not in sound, as with cough , bough , or love , move . These are not rhymes in the strict sense, but often were in earlier language periods.

44. tail rhyme (also called end rhyme or rime couée ): a rhyme in the final syllable(s) of a verse.

45. hyperbaton |hīˈpərbəˌtän|noun Rhetorican inversion of the normal order of words, esp. for the sake of emphasis, as in the sentence “ this I must see.”ORIGIN mid 16th cent.: via Latin from Greek huperbaton ‘overstepping’ (from huper ‘over, above’ + bainein ‘go, walk’ ).